Short-term efforts[ edit ] Concept diagram of underwater oil containment domes originally planned for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. At this stage, there were 2 remaining oil leaks from the fallen pipeline. Oil containment dome under construction in Port Fourchon, Louisiana, at Wild Well Control on 26 April First, BP unsuccessfully attempted to close the blowout preventer valves on the wellhead with remotely operated underwater vehicles. While this technique had worked in shallower water, it failed here when gas combined with cold water to form methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome.
From the crest of the mountain range to the coastal areas of the Beaufort and Chuckchi seas, this region of rolling foothills, wild rivers, and coastal plain wetlands provides habitat for millions of waterfowl, caribou, Arctic peregrine falcons, and other wildlife.
Twenty years later, Congress passed the Alaska Lands Act, which doubled the size of the range to nearly 20 million acres, including 8 million acres as "wilderness," and renamed it the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR. The entire refuge lies north of the Arctic Circle and 1, miles south of the North Pole.
Acknowledging the possible presence of valuable hydrocarbon reserves, Section of the Act set aside a 1. Premium Habitat for Unique Wildlife It is a whole place, as true a wilderness as there is anywhere on this continent and unlike any other that I know of.
Congressman The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a unique tundra ecosystem stretching just miles along the Beaufort Sea and measuring only 14 to 50 miles across.
Dotted with thousands of small ponds, the tundra turns in the south into gently rolling hills that become the foothills of the northern Brooks Range, which dominates the refuge with glacier-clad peaks up to 9, feet tall. This unique compression of Debate on alaska oil essay concentrates an extraordinary variety of species, including caribou, three kinds of bears, wolves, wolverines, musk oxen, Arctic and red foxes, Dall sheep, trout and grayling, snow geese and tundra swans, and millions of birds that pass through during the brief Arctic summer.
For tens of thousands of years, the Porcupine caribou herd has migrated north each spring to calve on the coastal plain and fatten up on its nutritious vegetation.
The coastal waters support a variety of marine mammals, including the endangered bowhead whale. Despite the intense winter cold, short summers, and waterlogged soil, the refuge is also home to many low shrubs, mosses, lichens, and grasses. Arctic vegetation grows slowly and is exceedingly susceptible to trampling.
In some places, Native American trails thousands of years old are still visible. A plethora of native plants and animals depend for their survival on a strip of land whose unforgiving climate and limited resources allow only a small window for survival and regeneration.
The basis of all we know about the oil- and gas-bearing potential of the coastal plain is a U. Geological Survey USGS analysis of a single set of 2D seismic data acquired along a coarse three-mile by six-mile grid during the winters of andas well as projection of geological information from adjacent wells.
Released inthe report concluded that the ANWR area contains between 4. About half as much profitable petroleum as Prudhoe Bay was estimated to hold inthis is more than was previously estimated.
Most of the oil is thought to lie in the western part of the reserve, which is closest to existing roads and pipelines. The report also concluded that most of the oil is likely to occur in a number of smaller pockets rather than in a single large accumulation, which makes recovery more expensive, with a greater tax on the environment.
In Marcha USGS report based on 12 years of biological research concluded that wildlife in the region is especially vulnerable to the kinds of disturbances that development may bring. The report singled out snow geese as at risk of displacement because of increased activity, including air traffic, and said that the geese would not necessarily find adequate feeding grounds elsewhere.
Denning polar bears, another fixture on the coastal plain, might also be adversely affected, but the report added that "aggressive and proactive management" could minimize the problem.
Other sensitive ecological issues include: Proponents of drilling point out that the Central Arctic herd, a separate group whose summer habitat encompasses the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk oil fields to the west, has grown in size since exploration began.
However, the coastal plain provides calving habitat for a herd nearly five times as large as the Central Arctic herd in an area one-fifth the size. The USGS report said that "oil development will most likely restrict the location of concentrated calving areas.
Formerly found across arctic Alaska, musk oxen were wiped out in the mid nineteenth century. A small herd was reintroduced to the coastal plain in Numbers there have stabilized, and the population continues to expand to the east and west.
Musk oxen do not migrate, but survive the brutal winters by hunkering down and conserving energy by limiting movement as much as possible. This renders them particularly "vulnerable to disturbances" from oil and gas exploration, according to the USGS report, because drilling activity is most intense during the winter.
Roads made of water and crushed ice have now largely replaced their gravel counterparts during wintertime oil exploration. It takes about a million gallons of water to construct a mile-long stretch of ice road.Get The Wall Street Journal’s Opinion columnists, editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor, and book and arts reviews.
The matter on hand is that should we drill for oil in Alaska’s wilderness? My opinion and answer to this question would simply be no. We will write a custom essay sample on. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the . "To live in this process is absolutely not to be able to notice it Each step was so small, so inconsequential, so well explained or, on occasion, 'regretted,' that, unless one were detached from the whole process from the beginning one no more saw it developing from day to day than a farmer in his field sees the corn growing.
The debate over oil's origin has been going on since the 19th century. From the start, there were those who contended that oil is primordial - that it dates back to Earth's origin - or that it is made through an inorganic process, while others argued that it was produced from the decay of living.
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