Locke grew up and lived through one of the most extraordinary centuries of English political and intellectual history. It was a century in which conflicts between Crown and Parliament and the overlapping conflicts between Protestants, Anglicans and Catholics swirled into civil war in the s. This period lasted from to
As John Deathridge has pointed out, this metaphor actually originated with August F. Pott in his critique of Gobineau, which Wagner had read.
I do not mean, of course, that these subjects should be ignored. Indeed they deserve to be addressed. What is unfortunate is that discussion of them soon turned into a war of words in which truth was the first casualty.
In the vanguard of those who attacked Wagner and his heritage in the postwar period was Theodor Adorno. Adorno suggested that some of the characters, such as Mime and Klingsorwere anti-Semitic caricatures.
So remarkable that one might be tempted to believe that both this chapter and some fantastic passages earlier in the book such as his analysis of Tristan und Isolde had been written under the influence of the "mind-expanding" drugs that were popular on US campuses at that time.
Ignoring all considerations of chronology and taking no account of the available, relevant documentation e. According to Gutman, Are quotations included in word count extended essay libretto of Parsifal was rooted in ideas that preoccupied Wagner in the last years of his life, specifically Ignoring the fact that the first Prose Draft of Parsifal had been written long before this, Gutman supposed that the underlying ideas of Parsifal were those of social Darwinism.
He suggested that the embattled community of the Grail had been alarmed to observe natural selection working against its distinctive Aryanism After all, what else could the work be about other than race, pederasty and diet?
The result is that, at least in the English-speaking world, there is a widespread perception and often a deep-rooted conviction that Wagner hated specific racial minorities, that this hatred was the source of his creativity, and that it found its fullest expression in the libretto of Parsifal.
If anyone points out that none of this is even remotely true, they can only expect to be shouted down by those whose prejudices are stronger than their concern for facts. So why did Gutman think that Wagner had come under the influence of Gobineau -- and why did he suggest that this influence had affected the libretto of Parsifal?
Also that he had been a guest of the Wagner family in Bayreuth in the spring of Ignoring all considerations of logic, evidence and chronologyGutman assumed that Gobineau had influenced the libretto of Parsifal which Wagner completed in the spring of From this assumption -- it was never anything more than an assumption -- ignoring the evidence that documents the development of the Parsifal scenario from toand failing to understand the uneasy relationship that developed between Gobineau and Wagner in andGutman developed an elaborate theory of the genesis of Parsifal.
Only partially, however, because Gutman presumed to develop an elaborate theory without a foundation in evidence.
Some of that evidence -- such as the Gobineau correspondence -- would have been available to him had he taken the trouble to find it. Robert Gutman claimed that a libretto that Wagner completed in -- which closely follows a draft made in -- was influenced by ideas that Wagner first encountered in the spring of When Gobineau condemned the Irish as a Celtic race for opposing their English masters as a Germanic raceWagner took the side of the oppressed.
When Gobineau supported slavery of those he regarded as inferior racesWagner argued for its abolition. These facts are ignored, as inconvenient, by those who want to see Wagner as a disciple of Gobineau.
The article is one of the so-called "regeneration writings" that were, according to Gutman, closely related to the ideas underlying Parsifal 2. Those who are familiar with one or more of the many biographies of Richard Wagner will know that everything in his life is related, directly or indirectly, to everything else; so the real question to be answered is not whether his last music-drama is related to the "regeneration writings" but how it is related to them.
It is remarkable that Gutman failed to grasp this distinction. It is an idea that dates back at least to Plato. Gobineau held that this degeneration was the result of miscegenation, that is, the mixing of the blood i. Why Kundry should be an inferior is not clear; after all, in her incarnation as Herodias she was a princess.This article considers the evidence and arguments for the view that the ideas underlying Wagner's 'Parsifal' concern race and racial purity.
It discusses the claim that the development of Wagner's libretto was influenced by the racial theorist Count Gobineau. Finally it considers the claims that Kundry and Klingsor are anti-Semitic caricatures and that Parsifal .
Ib Extended Essay Do Quotes Count In Word Count. Please refer to the following guidance on what content should be included in the word count. Included nbsp; Word count extended essay but often a student has consciously, unconsciously, or inadvertently. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs. Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.
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