Methods employed[ edit ] Feminist scholarship has developed a variety of ways to unpack literature in order to understand its essence through a feminist lens. Others schools of thought such as gynocriticism - which is considered a 'female' perspective on women's writings - uses a historicist approach to literature by exposing exemplary female scholarship in literature and the ways in which their relation to gender structure relayed in their portrayal of both fiction and reality in their texts. Gynocriticism was introduced during the time of second wave feminism. The ultimate goal of any of these tools is to uncover and expose patriarchal underlying tensions within novels and interrogate the ways in which our basic literary assumptions about such novels are contingent on female subordination.
Truth argued that if a woman of color can perform tasks that were supposedly limited to men, then any woman of any color could perform those same tasks. After her arrest for illegally voting, Susan B. Anthony gave a speech within court in which she addressed the issues of language within the constitution documented in her publication, "Speech after Arrest for Illegal voting" in Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male gendered language.
She raised the question of why women are accountable to be punished under law but they cannot use the law for their own protection women could not vote, own property, nor themselves in marriage. She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women.
Nancy Cott makes a distinction between modern feminism and its antecedents, particularly the struggle for suffrage. In the United States she places the turning point in the decades before and after women obtained the vote in — She argues that the prior woman movement was primarily about woman as a universal entity, whereas over this year period it transformed itself into one primarily concerned with social differentiationattentive to individuality and diversity.
Politically this represented a shift from an ideological alignment comfortable with the right, to one more radically associated with the left. In this book and her essay, "Woman: For women it is not a question of asserting themselves as women, but of becoming full-scale human beings.
Therefore, woman must regain subject, to escape her defined role as "other", as a Cartesian point of departure.
Ironically, feminist philosophers have had to extract de Beauvoir herself from out of the shadow of Jean-Paul Sartre to fully appreciate her. The resurgence of feminist activism in the late s was accompanied by an emerging literature of concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmentalism.
This in turn created an atmosphere conducive to reigniting the study of and debate on matricentricity, as a rejection of determinismsuch as Adrienne Rich  and Marilyn French  while for socialist feminists like Evelyn Reed patriarchy held the properties of capitalism.
Feminist psychologists, such as Jean Baker Millersought to bring a feminist analysis to previous psychological theories, proving that "there was nothing wrong with women, but rather with the way modern culture viewed them". The first she calls "feminist critique" — where the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena.
The second Showalter calls "Gynocritics" — where the "woman is producer of textual meaning" including "the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career and literary history ".
She also criticized it for not taking account of the situation for women outside the west. Feminist psychoanalysis deconstructed the phallic hypotheses regarding the Unconscious.
Julia KristevaBracha Ettinger and Luce Irigaray developed specific notions concerning unconscious sexual difference, the feminine and motherhood, with wide implications for film and literature analysis. Additionally, these are also debates which shape feminist theory and they can be applied interchangeably in the arguments of feminist theorists.
Bodies[ edit ] In western thought, the body has been historically associated solely with women, whereas men have been associated with the mind. The standard and contemporary sex and gender system[ edit ] The standard sex determination and gender model consists of evidence based on the determined sex and gender of every individual and serve as norms for societal life.
Occasionally, mutations occur during the sex-determining process. When this happens, the fetus becomes a hermaphrodite. Studies into biological sex-determining systems also have began working towards connecting certain gender conducts such as behaviors, actions, and desires with sex-determinism.
Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style.- Feminist social theory ought to challenge the ideals of Classical social theory embodied by the work of authors, such Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Simmel.
Such traditional values tend to exclude women from their social analysis of the modern world, as women were considered non social agents. A Critique of Postmodern Feminism: The Theoretical, Pedagogical, and Real-World identified in feminist theory, and whether the same ideas postmodern theory rejects are who identified two primary categories of modern feminist: the cultural feminists and the poststructuralist feminists.
In this chapter, I break the analysis into two.
Essay on Feminism and Modern Feminist Theory Words 5 Pages Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. Modern Feminist Theory 9 While her discussion inspires hunger in the reader and in the writer (filet of soles, partridges, and a wonderful meringue are served) what is also inspires is a sense of.
Feminist theory, or feminism, is support of equality for women and men. Although all feminists strive for gender equality, there are various ways to approach this theory, including liberal. Postructuralism feminist theory is a good approach to more modern works, where sexism or gender expectations might be subtly expressed by connotations.
Black feminist criticism focuses on works both by and about African American women.